Home Amateka Ni gute Islam yaguye ubwami bwayo muri Africa y’amajyaruguru, n’ingaruka byagize ku muco wabo

Ni gute Islam yaguye ubwami bwayo muri Africa y’amajyaruguru, n’ingaruka byagize ku muco wabo

by KATABARWA Gilbert

Mu myaka ya kera, Islam yari iri mu bihe byo kwagura ubwami bwayo, ndetse n’idini yayo. Islam yatangiye kwagura ubwami bwayo mu mwaka wa 632, nyuma y’urupfu rw’Intumwa Muhamadi.

Mu gihe Uburayi bwari bugowe, buri mu bihe by’umwijima, Uburasirazuba bwo hagati bwari mu gihe cyo gutera imbere mu bukungu no gutera imbere mu bumenyi.

Ubwami bwa Islam bwatangiye muri 610, kugeza igihe ubwami bwa Ottoman bwaviriyeho mu 1924. Idini ya Islamu yashinzwe muri 610 n’Intumwa Muhamadi mu mujyi wa Maka wo mu gihugu cya Arabiya Sawudite y’ubu. Idini ya Islam yatangiye gukwirakwira mu karere kose kandi yagize uruhare runini, ku muco wo mu burasirazuba bwo hagati na Afurika y’Amajyaruguru. Byagize ingaruka ku mibereho y’abaturage, na Leta yabo, ku bucuruzi ndetse n’uburezi.

Icyo gihe guverinoma ya kisilamu yitwaga “Caliphate” kandi iyobowe na Caliph. Abakalifa 4 ba mbere, bose bigishijwe Islam bikozwe na Muhamadi kandi bitwaga Abakalifa “Bayobowe neza”. Bakurikiwe n’ingoma ya mbere ya kisilamu yitwa “Umayyad Caliphate”.

Mu mwaka wa 750, hagiyeho ubutegetsi bwa Abbasid Caliphate maze butegeka imyaka 500. Igihe cya Zahabu ya kisilamu (Islamic Golden Age), cyabaye ku butegetsi bwa Abassid Caliphate.

Kwaguka k’w’Ingoma ya kisilamu kwabaye mu gihe cyo hagati (middle age), bukaba bwaraje kuba ubwami bunini mu mateka y’isi. Yagenzuraga Uburasirazuba bwo hagati, Afurika y’amajyaruguru, Iberian Peninsula (Espanye), hamwe n’ibice bya Aziya mu Buhinde.

Islamic golden age, cyari igihe siyansi, umuco, ikoranabuhanga, uburezi, n’ubuhanzi byari biteye imbere cyane mu bwami bwa kisilamu. Iki gihe cya Islamic golden age cyatangiye ahagana mu mwaka wa 790 kugeza mu 1258. Muri icyo gihe ahantu ndangamuco hari mu mujyi wa Baghdad (muri Irak) ndetse akaba ari nawo wari umurwa mukuru w’ubutegetsi bwa Abassid Caliphate.

Hariho imijyi mikuru myinshi ya Caliphate mu mateka. Imwe mu mirwa mikuru harimo Madina, Damascus, Baghdad, Cairo, na Istanbul.

Igihe cya Islamic Golden Age cyarangiye mu 1258. Umayyad Caliphate bwari bumwe mu bwami bunini mu mateka y’isi, kuko bwayoboraga hafi 28% by’abatuye Isi. Islam mu kwagura ubwami bwayo, bateye bwa mbere Afurika y’amajyaruguru mu mwaka wa 647, icyo gihe batsindiye igice kinini cy’ubutaka, ariko basubira inyuma, nyuma yo gutsinda Libiya basubiza imisoro.

Abarabu bongeye gutera mu mwaka wa 665. Iki gihe bigaruriye hafi ya Afrika y’amajyaruguru yose kuva muri Misiri kugera ku nyanja ya Atalantika na Maroc. Ntibarekeye aho kuko bakomeje kurwanya ingabo z’ubwami bwa Byzantine n’abaturage baho (Berbers) imyaka itari mike.

Mu mwaka wa 709, Afurika y’amajyaruguru yose, yari iyobowe n’Abarabu. Hubatswe Umusigiti munini wa Djenne muri USDA nkuko ubutegetsi bw’Abarabu, bwabyifuzaga, kandi abanyafurika benshi bo mu majyaruguru y’Africa bahindukiriye Islam.

Iyi nkuru dukesha “www.ducksters.com” ivuga ko Islamu yagize ingaruka zikomeye ku muco wo mu majyaruguru ya Afrika. Nubwo imigenzo n’indangagaciro zimwe na zimwe byakundaga kwinjizwa mu idini, ariko Islamu yagize uruhare rukomeye muri guverinoma, umuco, imyubakire, ndetse n’ubukungu.

Maghreb ni igice cyo mu majyaruguru ya Afrika kigendera ku mategeko cyangwa amahame ya Islam. Maghreb iva ku mupaka wa Misiri na Libiya kugeza ku nyanja ya Atalantika no mu gihugu cya Mauritania.

Mu bihugu bya Maghreb, harimo ibihugu nka Libiya, Tuniziya, Alijeriya, Maroc, Sahara y’Uburengerazuba, na Mauritania. Abantu baho ba kavukire bo mu bihugu bya Maghreb bitwa Berbers, baba bahuje ubwoko kandi bavuga indimi zimeze kimwe, zizwi ku izina rya Berber.

Nubwo Aba Berbers babanje kurwanya abarabu ariko baje kuba Abayisilamu, kandi bafata n’imico myinshi yabo. Abantu bo mu majyaruguru y’Africa baje kumenyekana ku izina rya “Moors: Abamore.”

Abamore bari abantu bakomeye cyane muri Mediterane mu gihe cya (Middle Age). Ntibagenzuye Afurika yo mu majyaruguru gusa, ahubwo bateye Uburayi igihe kimwe, bagenzura igice kinini cya Iberian Peninsula cyo muri Espanye, n’ikirwa cya Sicily cyo mu Butaliyani.

Islam yagize uruhare runini mu bwami bwa Mali ndetse n’ubwami bwa Songhai. Birashoboka ko Umuyisilamu uzwi cyane muri Afurika yo hagati yari Umwami w’abami wa Mali, Mansa Musa.

Mansa Musa amaze kwinjira mu idini ya Islam, yakoze urugendo rutagatifu i Maka muri Arabiya Sawudite. Inyandiko zerekana ko abantu bagera ku 60.000 bagendanye nawe mu rugendo rwe. Kugeza na nubu mu majyaruguru y’Africa idini ya Islam irahiganje cyane.

Umusigiti wa kera wa Islam muri Afurika ni Umusigiti munini wa Kairouan wubatswe mu mwaka wa 670. Abayisilamu bazanye iterambere ryinshi mu ikoranabuhanga harimo imibare (imibare na algebra), ubumenyi mu by’isanzure, ubuvuzi, ubumenyi bw’Isi n’ibindi.

Kimwe n’Uburayi bwo Hagati, mu mwaka wa 1300, Afurika y’amajyaruguru yigeze kwibasirwa n’icyorezo cyitwaga “Black death plague: Ubushita” ku buryo cyahitanye nibura 25% by’abaturage bari bayituyemo.

Islam igira Inkingi 5 igenderaho,  arizo Shahadah (gutangaza ukwizera kwawe), Salat (amasengesho), Zakat (kugira neza), Fasting (kwiyiriza ubusa), Hajj (gukora ingendo ntagatifu).

 

 

 

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